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Thymosin Alpha-1

Thymosin Alpha-1 is a natural immune function regulator. Since its discovery in 1972, it has been extensively studied for its potential applications in various medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, infections like tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus, respiratory disorders, chronic hepatitis, and cancer. Originally isolated from the thymus gland tissue, Thymosin Alpha-1 is known for its potent ability to modulate immune function.

This PRODUCT IS INTENDED AS A RESEARCH CHEMICAL ONLY. This designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. All product information available on this website is for educational purposes only. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law. This product should only be handled by licensed, qualified professionals. This product is not a drug, food, or cosmetic and may not be misbranded, misused or mislabled as a drug, food or cosmetic.


1. What is Thymosin Alpha 1?


2. Thymosin Alpha-1 Structure


3. Thymosin Alpha-1 Research

4. The Future of Thymosin Alpha-1

What is Thymosin Alpha 1?

It is a naturally occurring peptide fragment that was first identified in 1972. It has been the subject of clinical trials to explore its potential applications in various medical conditions, including cystic fibrosis, infections such as tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus, respiratory disorders, chronic hepatitis, and cancer. Presently, it holds approval for use in combatting chronic hepatitis B and C infections in 35 underdeveloped nations.

Thymosin Alpha-1 Structure

Sequence: Ser-Asp-Ala-Ala-Val-Asp-Thr-Ser-Ser-Glu-Ile-Thr-Thr-Lys-Asp-Leu-Lys-Glu-Lys-Lys-Glu-Val-Val-Glu-Glu-Ala-Glu-Asn
Molecular Formula: C129H215N33O55
Molecular Weight: 3108.315 g/mol
PubChem CID: 16130571
CAS Number: 62304-98-7
Synonyms: Thymalfasin

Thymosin Alpha-1 Research

Thymosin Alpha-1 and Its Modulation of the Immune System

It is initially isolated from the thymus gland, serves as a potent regulator of immune function. The thymus is responsible for producing T-cells and ensuring their proper maturation. T-cells are essential components of the adaptive immune system, contributing to immune memory and enhancing the performance of other immune system cells to bolster their ability to combat infections.

Studies conducted in mice that lack thymus glands have revealed that thymosin alpha-1 alone can restore immune function and prevent widespread infections. This peptide operates at the fundamental levels of the immune system, activating signaling pathways and stimulating the production of cytokines and other molecules that coordinate the activities of various immune system cells. In essence, thymosin alpha-1 exerts broad and positive effects on the immune system.

It is holds promise in vaccine development. Many current vaccines utilize inactivated (killed) pathogens because administering live pathogens, even in weakened forms, carries risks. Unfortunately, inactivated vaccines are less effective, resulting in diminished immunity. Alpha-1 may offer a solution by enhancing the immune response to inactivated vaccines, leading to improved immunity and longer-lasting protection. This could be especially valuable for severe diseases like avian influenza and HIV.

Another potential application of thymosin alpha-1’s immune-regulating abilities is in the context of sepsis. Sepsis is a life-threatening condition triggered by an excessive immune response to infection. The capacity to modulate the immune response in sepsis could save lives and mitigate organ damage. Research suggests that thymosin alpha-1 reduces mortality in sepsis patients and lowers the risk of long-term complications. Ongoing research is needed, but early results hint at the possibility of thymosin alpha-1 being approved as an adjunct therapy for sepsis.

Thymosin Alpha-1 and Promotion of Nerve Growth

The immune system plays crucial roles in the growth, development, and maintenance of the central nervous system, particularly in the brains of developing mammals. Studies in mice have indicated that thymosin alpha-1 significantly enhances neurodevelopment and can boost cognitive function when administered peripherally. Thymosin alpha-1 appears to impact various genes responsible for neuron growth and the formation of connections between neurons. The peptide alters the nervous system’s environment to favor growth and development while concurrently blocking pathways associated with inflammation and neuronal dysfunction. In summary, thymosin alpha-1 improves brain structure and function, raising interest in its potential application to address neurodevelopmental delays, such as those associated with conditions like cerebral palsy.


Thymosin Alpha-1’s Actions Against Fungal Infections

Dendritic cells, a specific subset of immune cells, play a crucial role in recognizing fungal infections and are integral to the immune response against such pathogens. Thymosin alpha-1 has demonstrated the ability to induce the maturation of dendritic cells, enhancing the immune system’s capacity to combat fungal infections. This peptide has also been found to activate T-helper cells in mouse models of severe fungal infections like aspergillosis. Researchers are exploring thymosin alpha-1 as an adjuvant therapy to enhance the effectiveness of conventional antifungal treatments.

The significance of thymosin alpha-1’s role in regulating dendritic cells cannot be overstated. Dendritic cells are responsible for capturing antigens, fragments of invading microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi, and presenting them to other immune system cells in a manner that facilitates their recognition and appropriate response. Dendritic cells are abundant in the skin, nasal passages, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, acting as the first line of defense in the immune system. Thymosin alpha-1’s influence on dendritic cells affects immune system functioning at one of its most fundamental levels.

Thymosin Alpha-1’s Impact on Hepatitis and HIV

Thymosin alpha-1 serves as an effective and cost-efficient treatment for chronic hepatitis B and C infections. It can also be co-administered with vaccines for both viruses to enhance their efficacy. Thymosin alpha-1 is approved for the treatment of hepatitis B and C in more than 35 countries.

Even though significant progress has been made in antiretroviral therapy for HIV since its discovery in the 1980s, complete restoration of immune function remains challenging. Surprisingly, antiretroviral therapy itself has been associated with certain deficiencies in the immune response, particularly in cytotoxic T-cells, and persistent inflammatory conditions. Research suggests that thymosin alpha-1 may offer benefits in this population by helping restore immune regulation and improving the overall quality of life for individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Interestingly, thymosin alpha-1 may also enhance the body’s ability to combat HIV infection. It appears that the peptide stimulates CD8 T-cells to release various factors that inhibit HIV infection of other immune cells and prevent latent HIV from becoming active.

Thymosin Alpha-1’s Influence on Blood Pressure, Cancer, Inflammatory Pain, and Other Conditions

New research indicates that thymosin alpha-1 can block angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), potentially reducing blood pressure. ACE inhibitors are commonly used to treat high blood pressure, but they often come with side effects. Thymosin alpha-1 may offer the benefits of ACE inhibition without these side effects.

Thymosin alpha-1 has shown promise in cancer research, reducing the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. When combined with chemotherapy, it increased progression-free survival rates without an increase in toxicity. This suggests that thymosin alpha-1 can enhance the effects of chemotherapy in reducing cancer cell proliferation. It may also play a role in future cancer vaccines aimed at preventing tumor development.

Additionally, thymosin alpha-1 has exhibited anti-inflammatory effects that can reduce inflammatory pain by interfering with specific pathways in the nervous system. This mechanism differs from typical anti-inflammatory pain relievers, potentially offering improved pain relief with fewer side effects.

In the context of cystic fibrosis (CF), which is characterized by inflammation leading to complications, research indicates that thymosin alpha-1 can reduce inflammation and improve the function of the CFTR protein. This holds promise for a single-molecule therapeutic approach to treating CF.

Research into traumatic tooth injuries, specifically avulsed (pulled out) and replanted permanent front teeth, has suggested that thymosin alpha-1 can enhance the healing of gums and soft tissue surrounding the injury and promote the survival of the replanted tooth. Further research is needed, but these findings suggest potential benefits for dentists in rescuing knocked-out teeth.

The Future of Thymosin Alpha-1

The potential applications of thymosin alpha-1 are too numerous to list in any reasonable summary. What is notable, however, is that the peptide is already being used in a number of countries as a legitimate medical treatment. Researchers are currently looking at ways to improve the efficacy of the peptide and produce it faster and more affordably[19]. There is good reason to believe that thymosin alpha-1 variants will be investigated in clinical trials for a number of conditions in the coming years. From cancer to infection, the peptide has shown great promise as an immune system modulator with few side effects.

Thymosin Alpha-1 exhibits minimal side effects, low oral and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability in mice. Per kg dosage in mice does not scale to humans. Thymosin Alpha-1 for sale at Peptide Sciences is limited to educational and scientific research only, not for human consumption. Only buy Thymosin Alpha-1 if you are a licensed researcher.

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Article Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.


The product information featured on this website pertains exclusively to in-vitro studies. In-vitro studies, also known as ‘in glass’ studies, are conducted outside of living organisms. It’s important to emphasize that these products do not constitute medicines or drugs and have not received FDA approval for the prevention, treatment, or cure of any medical conditions, ailments, or diseases. It is crucial to note that the introduction of these products into the bodies of humans or animals is strictly prohibited by law.