Peptides >Thymagen (Thymogen)

Thymagen (Thymogen)

Thymagen, also known as Thymogen, is a potent bioregulator peptide that primarily targets cells of the immune system. Its key effects include enhancing the production and differentiation of T cells, stimulating the secretion of interferons, increasing levels of cyclic nucleotides, and improving the functionality of the innate immune system. These actions have shown promise in preventing cancer and reducing its severity. Additionally, research indicates that Thymagen can be beneficial as a peri-operative preventive measure against infections. It has also been observed to accelerate post-surgery recovery and potentially offer protection for the heart.

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1. What is Thymagen?


2. Thymagen Structure


3. Thymagen and Immune System

Thymagen (Thymogen)

Thymagen, also known as Thymogen, is a dipeptide bioregulator primarily affecting the thymus and the immune system. Initially derived from calf thymus, Thymagen is now produced using recombinant DNA techniques. In Russia, Thymagen has been extensively studied for its potential in cancer treatment by modulating the body’s innate immune response. It has also demonstrated promise in addressing conditions like heart disease and diabetes, as well as improving post-operative outcomes. Research indicates that Thymagen can enhance the immune response against various viruses and bacterial infections, with successful applications noted in treating Hepatitis B and C.

Thymagen Structure

Amino Acid Sequence: Glu-Trp (EW)
Molecular Formula: C16H19N3O5
Molecular Weight:
 333.34 g/mol
PubChem CID: 100094
CAS Number: 38101-59-6
Synonyms: Oglufanide, Thymogen

Thymagen and Immune System

Cyclic nucleotides are single-phosphate nucleotides with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate groups. They are integral components of communication within cells, usually acting as second messengers within the cell after a protein on the cell surface has bound to something. In other words, cyclic nucleotides act as messengers within cells for substances that cannot enter the cells themselves.

Research on Thymagen shows that it down regulates cyclic nucleotide catabolism. In other words, Thymagen slows the breakdown of cyclic nucleotides and thereby raises their levels within the cell[1]. This results in enhanced ability of cells, particularly those of the immune system, to respond to messages from other parts of the body. For example, increased levels of cyclic nucleotides could make cells of the immune system more responsive to invading pathogens by improving signaling between these cells.

Summary of nucleoside signaling (nucleotides indicated as NTPs being converted to NMPs). Thymagen has been shown to increase the pool of NTPs and potentiate down-stream effects:

Thymagen’s Impact on the Immune System

Thymagen’s influence on the immune system extends beyond cyclic nucleotides. Research conducted in rat spleen and thymus has revealed that Thymagen facilitates the maturation of T-lymphocyte precursors into fully functional T-cells capable of defending against diseases. This maturation process is driven by changes induced by Thymagen in cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Thymagen optimizes cyclic nucleotide ratios, ensuring that T-lymphocyte precursors receive the necessary signals to mature into fully functional immune system cells.

Thymagen and Interferon Secretion

Thymagen, along with other immunomodulatory substances like Immunitor and Milife, has demonstrated the ability to induce interferon secretion. Interferons are signaling proteins produced by host cells in response to viral infections. They play a vital role in modulating and coordinating immune responses against viruses and have also shown efficacy in cancer prevention and the treatment of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis. Interferons are commonly used in conjunction with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and for managing hepatitis B and C infections.

Thymagen’s Role in Reducing Inflammation

Inflammation is primarily regulated by the immune system. Therefore, it is logical to assume that a substance capable of influencing the immune system could also impact inflammation. Thymagen indeed supports this reasoning. Research has shown that Thymagen helps normalize lymphocyte counts and enhances T-cell functional activity. This leads to a desensitizing effect that down-regulates inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels.

Thymagen’s Effects on Infection Control

A study conducted in guinea pigs infected with Yersinia enterocoliticia, a bacterium related to the one causing the Plague, demonstrated Thymagen’s ability to enhance the immune response to invading pathogens. Guinea pigs treated with Thymagen displayed increased nonspecific resistance to the bacteria and an improved specific humoral (antibody) response. Thymagen appeared to regulate the immune response by focusing it on natural killer cell immunity and preventing autoimmune reactions, ultimately decreasing the spread of Y. enterocoliticia and aiding in its elimination from the body.

Thymagen’s Role in Diabetes Treatment

Research has indicated that many patients with type 1 diabetes suffer from secondary immunodeficiency. Thymagen, by promoting T-cell differentiation, addresses this immunodeficiency and corrects the deficit. Clinical effects were observed in nearly 95% of patients in the study. Additionally, Thymagen has demonstrated the ability to slow the progression of candidiasis (yeast infection), a common complication in people with diabetes and challenging to treat.

Thymagen in Surgical Settings

Infections following surgery are not uncommon, especially after abdominal surgery and in individuals with reduced immune function, such as the elderly. Research has shown that administering Thymagen for a week prior to surgery reduces both the number and variety of post-operative complications. Thymagen also accelerates postoperative recovery and the return to normal activity.

Thymagen’s Potential in Heart Conditions

Thymagen has been studied as a possible treatment for various heart conditions, particularly arrhythmia. Research involving six different models of arrhythmia demonstrated a beneficial effect of Thymagen, including a dose-response relationship, confirming its efficacy. Thymagen has also shown superior protective properties compared to commonly used drugs like verapamil in isolated heart models. In cases of cardiac ischemia, where protecting heart muscle is crucial before restoring blood flow, Thymagen may serve as a valuable adjunct in treating ischemic cardiac injuries.

Thymagen’s Role in Cancer Prevention

Studies in rats have shown that Thymagen can inhibit radiation-induced carcinogenesis. In fact, Thymagen inhibits all forms of carcinogenesis, with rats exposed to radiation living lifespans close to the average while rats without radiation exposure live above-average lifespans. Thymagen has the potential to act as a cancer preventive agent, even in situations of unknown exposures.

According to Dr. Vladimir Anisimov, a collaborator of Dr. Vladimir Khavinson, rats treated with Thymagen have demonstrated a decreased incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Regardless of immune status, rats treated with Thymagen experienced a 12% reduction in tumor incidence and a 1.7-fold reduction in the number of tumors if cancer developed. This suggests that Thymagen enhances immune function against cancer, particularly through boosting natural killer cell defenses and other components of the innate immune system, leading to cancer prevention and reducing the rate and severity of cancer spread.

In summary, Thymagen is a potent peptide with significant effects on the immune system. It promotes T-cell production and differentiation, stimulates interferon secretion, optimizes cyclic nucleotide ratios, and enhances innate immune system functionality. Additionally, Thymagen has demonstrated potential in preventing cancer, reducing inflammation, improving diabetes management, enhancing surgical outcomes, and serving as a cardioprotective agent.

Article Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.


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