Peptides > PEG MGF


PEGylated Mechano-Growth Factor is a modified form of MGF, itself a modified form of IGF-1. Research has shown it to lower cholesterol and total body fat, boost immune function, and improve rates of wound healing.

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1. PEG-MGF Overview


2. PEG-MGF Structure


3. What is Pegylation?

PEG-MGF Overview

PEGylated Mechano-Growth Factor (PEG-MGF) is a modified form of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Studies demonstrate that it stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts (muscle cells). It has also been investigated for its potential in enhancing endurance, improving immune system function, reducing cholesterol, and decreasing total body fat. Additionally, there is evidence suggesting that PEG-MGF may expedite wound healing by enhancing immune-related functions.

PEG-MGF Structure

Sequence: PEG-Suc-Tyr-Gln-Pro-Pro-Ser-Thr-Asn-Lys-Asn-Thr-Lys-Ser-Gln-Arg-Arg-Lys-Gly-Ser-Thr-Phe-Glu-Glu-Arg-Lys-Cys
Molecular Formula: C121H200N42O39
PubChem SID: 178101669
Synonyms: Pegylated MGF, PEG IGF-1 Ec, PEG myotrophin

What is Pegylation?

Pegylation is a process in which polyethylene glycol (PEG) is attached to another chemical compound. This is frequently done to decrease the body’s natural immune response to the compound or, as seen with PEG-MGF, to extend the compound’s presence in the bloodstream by reducing its elimination through the kidneys. Pegylation is a common, safe, and advantageous procedure.

The development of PEG-MGF was driven by the short half-life of MGF in the bloodstream. While MGF lingers for extended periods in muscle tissue, its exogenous administration results in a brief half-life because it initially passes through the bloodstream unless directly injected into muscle tissue. PEG-MGF serves to mitigate this specific limitation.

PEG-MGF Research

PEG-MGF and Skeletal Muscle

Muscle injuries are common in sports, ranging from strains and sprains to severe avulsion injuries, often necessitating surgical intervention. Regardless of the treatment, recovery is typically lengthy, and outcomes are not always ideal. Research using a mouse model of muscle injury suggests that direct MGF injection into muscle can protect cells by reducing the expression of specific inflammatory hormones and decreasing oxidative stress[^1^]. Another study by Sun et al. indicates that MGF plays a role in modulating muscle inflammation, enhancing the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils to the injury site[^2^]. Both studies build on the knowledge that exercise-induced muscle damage triggers the release of IGF-1Ea and IGF-1Eb, closely related to MGF[^3^].

International endocrinology researchers have found that MGF stimulates the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor similarly to IGF-1[^4^]. Activation of this receptor has been linked to reduced aging effects, increased lean body mass, and improved energy balance in humans. These findings suggest that PEG-MGF may yield effects comparable to IGF-1, ultimately enhancing muscle repair, promoting fat metabolism, and increasing overall lean body mass.

Additionally, research in mice demonstrates a 25% increase in the mean size of muscle fibers when MGF is administered to exercising mice[^5^]. Notably, MGF was directly injected into the muscle in this study, which the authors acknowledge as a limitation, as it would require multiple intramuscular injections to optimize hypertrophy in various muscles. PEG-MGF circumvents this limitation by prolonging MGF’s plasma half-life, enabling administration via a single intravenous injection instead of multiple intramuscular injections.

PEG-MGF Research in Heart Muscle Repair

Studies conducted at the University of Illinois’ Department of Bioengineering reveal that MGF can inhibit programmed cell death in cardiac muscle cells following hypoxia. Moreover, the peptide appears to recruit cardiac stem cells to the injury site, potentially aiding regeneration and recovery after a heart attack. Rats administered MGF within eight hours of hypoxia displayed reduced cell death and increased stem cell recruitment compared to untreated rats[^6^]. Dr. Doroudian, the lead author, suggests that employing nanorods to deliver MGF may offer localized, long-term therapy for the bioactive peptide at injury sites.

Another study suggests that localized MGF delivery can improve cardiac function following a heart attack by reducing pathological hypertrophy. Rats treated with PEG-MGF demonstrated better hemodynamics and less cardiac remodeling compared to untreated rats[^7^]. Carpenter et al. also showed that MGF administration during acute myocardial infarction reduced cardiomyocyte injury by up to 35%.

Bone Repair and Growth

Research in rabbits indicates that PEG-MGF can accelerate bone repair by enhancing the proliferation of osteoblasts, the cells responsible for bone mineralization. Rabbits treated with high doses of MGF achieved the same level of healing at four weeks as control groups did at six weeks[^8^]. This approach holds promise for improving bone healing and reducing the duration of immobilization needed for recovery.

Protecting Cartilage

Research suggests that MGF can enhance the function of chondrocytes, cells crucial for cartilage health and formation. Studies in mice indicate that MGF improves the migration of chondrocytes from bone, where they develop, to cartilage, where they exert their effects[^9^]. PEG-MGF’s ability to be injected into compromised joint spaces and remain active for extended periods may prove beneficial. A single injection could potentially offer weeks or even months of therapeutic effects, whereas standard MGF has a much shorter duration of action, limited to minutes or hours.

Dental Applications

Studies conducted on human periodontal ligament cell cultures suggest that PEG-MGF can enhance osteogenic differentiation and increase the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-2[^10^]. These factors contribute to ligament repair, potentially offering an alternative to tooth extractions and implants. This could enable individuals to preserve their natural teeth after injuries, with speculation that PEG-MGF may even help save damaged or avulsed teeth following surgical re-implantation.

Potential Neuroprotective Effects

Recent research explores the long-term effects of elevated MGF levels in the brain and central nervous system. Findings indicate that increased MGF levels can reduce age-related neuron degeneration, allowing mice to retain cognitive functions and peak cognitive performance into old age. The efficacy of MGF in the brain appears to be age-dependent, with mice showing improved results when MGF overexpression occurs earlier in life[^11^].

Furthermore, MGF treatment has demonstrated the ability to improve muscle weakness and reduce motor-neuron loss in mouse models of ALS[^12^]. Administering exogenous MGF may not only address the root cause of neurological diseases but also prevent neuron death in the brain and spinal cord, despite ongoing disease processes.

Please note that PEG-MGF is primarily intended for educational and scientific research purposes, and its sale is restricted to licensed researchers. It is not intended for human consumption.


Article Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.


The product information featured on this website pertains exclusively to in-vitro studies. In-vitro studies, also known as ‘in glass’ studies, are conducted outside of living organisms. It’s important to emphasize that these products do not constitute medicines or drugs and have not received FDA approval for the prevention, treatment, or cure of any medical conditions, ailments, or diseases. It is crucial to note that the introduction of these products into the bodies of humans or animals is strictly prohibited by law.