Peptides > GHK Basic

GHK Basic

GHK, both with and without copper, has a significant impact on a wide array of genes associated with an organism’s response to stress and injury. This includes genes related to processes such as tissue remodeling, antioxidant defense, anti-inflammatory responses, pain mitigation, anxiety reduction, blood vessel formation, nerve regeneration, and even anti-cancer activities.

This PRODUCT IS INTENDED AS A RESEARCH CHEMICAL ONLY. This designation allows the use of research chemicals strictly for in vitro testing and laboratory experimentation only. All product information available on this website is for educational purposes only. Bodily introduction of any kind into humans or animals is strictly forbidden by law. This product should only be handled by licensed, qualified professionals. This product is not a drug, food, or cosmetic and may not be misbranded, misused or mislabled as a drug, food or cosmetic.


1. What is GHK?


2. What is the Difference Between GHK and GHK-


3. GHK Research

What is GHK?

GHK, a tripeptide consisting of the amino acids glycine, histidine, and lysine, occurs naturally in human plasma, saliva, and urine. In plasma, GHK levels are approximately 200 ng/mL at the age of 20 but decrease to 80 ng/mL by the age of 60. This decline in GHK levels corresponds with a noticeable reduction in an organism’s regenerative capacity.

Scientific research has unveiled that GHK has a range of beneficial effects, including aiding in wound healing, controlling infections, promoting hair growth, potential applications in cancer research, supporting cognitive health, and cosmetic uses for facial enhancement.

What is the Difference Between GHK and GHK-Cu?

GHK, both with and without copper, exerts a profound influence on a wide array of genes associated with an organism’s response to stress and injury. This impact encompasses processes such as tissue remodeling, antioxidant mechanisms, inflammation control, pain management, anxiety reduction, blood vessel development, nerve regeneration, and anti-cancer activities. The GHK sequence is naturally integrated into the collagen molecule and SPARC protein, and GHK is released following an injury as a result of protein breakdown.

Copper, being a transition metal, plays a critical role in the functioning of all eukaryotic organisms, ranging from microbes to humans. Its ability to transition between oxidized Cu(II) and reduced Cu(I) forms makes it an essential cofactor in numerous biochemical reactions involving electron transfer. Approximately a dozen enzymes rely on copper’s capacity to change oxidation states to facilitate vital biochemical processes, including cellular respiration, defense against oxidative stress, detoxification, blood clotting, and the formation of connective tissues. Copper is also indispensable for iron metabolism, oxygen transport, neurotransmission, embryonic development, and a host of other fundamental biological functions.

GHK Research

1. Fibrinogen Synthesis Suppression

Targeting Fibrinogen: GHK plays a significant role in suppressing the synthesis of fibrinogen, a protein comprising alpha, beta, and gamma chains. Specifically, it strongly inhibits the gene responsible for the beta chain of fibrinogen. By doing so, GHK disrupts the production of fibrinogen, as all three polypeptide chains are essential for its formation. Moreover, GHK also curtails the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory cytokine known to positively regulate fibrinogen synthesis. GHK’s effects on the FGB gene and IL-6 production collectively indicate a reduction in overall fibrinogen production.

2. Activation of the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System (UPS)

Cellular Cleanup: GHK activates the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System (UPS), a cellular mechanism responsible for removing damaged proteins. Elevated UPS activity is associated with the delay of aging effects. GHK’s impact is primarily stimulatory for UPS genes, with 41 genes being upregulated, and it suppresses only 1 UPS gene.

3. DNA Repair Gene Activation

Guarding DNA Integrity: As cells age, DNA damage accumulates. GHK plays a pivotal role in rejuvenating DNA repair by primarily stimulating DNA repair genes (47 upregulated, 5 downregulated).

4. Antioxidant Properties

Combatting Free Radicals: GHK acts as an antioxidant, countering the detrimental effects of free radicals and toxic byproducts of lipid peroxidation. By stimulating 14 antioxidant genes and suppressing two pro-oxidant genes, GHK contributes to reducing the risk of age-related conditions such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease.

5. Regulation of Insulin and Insulin-Like Genes

Influencing Insulin: GHK suppresses 6 genes related to the insulin/IGF-1-like receptor pathway, which is associated with biological aging. This pathway contributes to the aging process in various organisms. GHK’s actions suggest a suppression of this system, potentially extending lifespan by reducing insulin/IGF-1 signaling.

6. Tissue Repair via TGF Superfamily

Tissue Healing: GHK’s prominent role in tissue repair extends to various damaged tissues, including the skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, and bone tissue. It can facilitate tissue repair either through topical copper-peptide-containing creams or systemic induction of healing. GHK directly increases TGF beta and other family members involved in the repair process.

7. Cancer Control Genes

Cancer Suppression: GHK has implications for suppressing cancer by affecting genes related to caspase, growth regulation, and DNA repair. It has shown potential as a therapeutic agent in addressing metastatic colon cancer by reversing the expression of genes associated with aggressiveness and metastasis.


Versatile Benefits: GHK, a tripeptide, offers a range of positive effects but diminishes with age. Its applications include wound healing, tissue regeneration, collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, angiogenesis, nerve outgrowth, and stimulating trophic factors secretion by mesenchymal stem cells. Additionally, GHK has demonstrated the ability to reset genes in diseased cells, potentially promoting a healthier state. GHK has minimal side effects, favorable bioavailability in mice, and is available for research purposes only through Peptide Sciences. It is not intended for human consumption and should only be purchased by licensed researchers.

Article Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.


The product information featured on this website pertains exclusively to in-vitro studies. In-vitro studies, also known as ‘in glass’ studies, are conducted outside of living organisms. It’s important to emphasize that these products do not constitute medicines or drugs and have not received FDA approval for the prevention, treatment, or cure of any medical conditions, ailments, or diseases. It is crucial to note that the introduction of these products into the bodies of humans or animals is strictly prohibited by law.