Peptides > Follistatin 315)


Follistatin-315 serves as a naturally existing protein that effectively binds with activin and myostatin. Its beneficial impacts encompass the enhancement of muscle development, including both hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as the reduction of inflammatory reactions. Furthermore, it contributes to heightened fertility. This glycoprotein, Follistatin-315, is prevalent within blood plasma as the most abundant variant.

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1. Introduction to Follistatin 315


2. Molecular Structure of Follistatin 315


3. Research on Follistatin 315

Introduction to Follistatin 315

It’s essential to note that the use of Follistatin 315, especially for performance-enhancing purposes, is a topic of debate and may have legal and ethical implications in different contexts. If you’re interested in this protein for medical or therapeutic purposes, it’s crucial to consult with a qualified healthcare professional to discuss the potential benefits and risks.

Molecular Structure of Follistatin 315


Molecular Weight: 3470 g/mol
PubChem CID: 178101631 (Full follistatin protein)
Synonyms: Activin-Binding Protein, FSH-Suppressing Protein, FST, FST-315

Research on Follistatin 315

Follistatin, although not fully understood, has a profound impact on various aspects of our physiology. Initially identified in ovarian follicular fluid, this protein was recognized as an inhibitor of follicle-stimulating hormone. It undergoes modifications from a 344-amino-acid precursor to yield three distinct isoforms: follistatin 315, 300, or 288. While these isoforms share similar effects, they are distributed across different tissues.

Follistatin 315 Research and Its Impact on Muscle Function Early studies on follistatin 315 resulted in the creation of “mighty mice,” which had four times the muscle mass of average mice. This discovery stemmed from the knockout of the myostatin gene, essentially removing the restrictions on muscle growth. Further investigations demonstrated that a dual approach involving myostatin gene knockout and heightened follistatin production could amplify muscle growth even more. With follistatin levels elevated and myostatin suppressed, mice in the experiment achieved four times the muscle mass of their counterparts. These findings suggest that follistatin influences muscle development through two mechanisms: myostatin inhibition and an alternative, yet unidentified pathway.

Follistatin’s Role in Inflammation Follistatin appears to contribute to the regulation of inflammatory responses across various tissues and disease conditions. Recent research on mice afflicted with a form of rheumatoid arthritis highlighted the impact of activin A over-expression or follistatin under-expression, both exacerbating the disease. As follistatin counters the effects of activin A, this dual relationship is expected. Supplementation with follistatin has reversed these effects, mitigating clinical signs and symptoms of arthritis.

Previous studies in asthma patients indicated elevated levels of activin A, particularly in mild-to-moderate cases, correlating with markers of disease severity. While follistatin levels in asthma patients remain within the normal range, they fall short of what’s needed to counteract excessive activin A-induced inflammation. Administering follistatin intranasally in mice prevented the typical airway remodeling observed in asthma. This potential to hinder airway remodeling extends beyond asthma and holds promise for treating various lung inflammatory conditions, including sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and more.

Notably, inflammation and fibrosis often lead to the failure of lung transplants, primarily attributed to activin A dysregulation. Follistatin supplementation presents hope for reducing post-transplant remodeling and, consequently, prolonging the survival of these vulnerable patients.

Extensive research suggests that activin A plays a role in the onset of multiple inflammatory responses in diseases such as cachexia and septicemia. Follistatin, by inhibiting the proinflammatory and profibrotic functions of activin A, is under investigation as a potential treatment for a range of diseases.

Follistatin has even exhibited the capacity to suppress radiation therapy-induced fibrosis. In a mouse model, follistatin protected against common inflammatory responses, including increased epidermal thickness and cell nucleus area. It also reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta and smooth muscle actin, both associated with fibrosis. Follistatin could serve as a valuable adjunct to radiation therapy, allowing for higher doses, extended treatment, and improved remission rates, even in chemotherapy-associated fibrosis scenarios.

Blood Vessel Growth Follistatin and activin exert conflicting effects on cell proliferation depending on the cell type involved. While activin promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation, it inhibits endothelial cell growth. During normal growth, endothelial cells express follistatin to counteract activin A’s effects.

Mouse studies suggest that follistatin enhances endothelial cell function, particularly in response to injuries. Administering follistatin in cases of ischemia enhances blood vessel function, aiding tissue recovery by restoring blood flow. This potential application extends to stroke and heart attack treatments and other scenarios where accelerated blood vessel growth is beneficial, such as muscle repair following injury, burn recovery, and post-surgery situations where tissue viability relies on rapid blood flow restoration.

Follistatin Research in Kidney Disease The interplay between inflammation and dysfunctional blood vessel growth is a characteristic of kidney disease. In mouse models, follistatin administration reduced cell death, oxidative damage, and overall fibrosis. Follistatin could potentially slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, delaying the need for dialysis or transplantation.

Utilizing Follistatin as a Disease Marker Follistatin levels increase in response to disease or unhealthy states, suggesting its potential as a marker for early disease onset. Monitoring follistatin levels may enable early intervention, even before clinical symptoms manifest, when preventive treatments are most effective.

For instance, individuals with cardiovascular disease exhibit significantly elevated follistatin levels as the disease develops. Follistatin could serve as an early indicator, facilitating timely interventions, medication adjustments, and informed decisions about treatment strategies.

Follistatin and Protein Enhancement Research While natural compounds can counteract disease effects, they may not always be ideal for exogenous treatment due to challenges related to administration, stability, or side effects. Research on follistatin serves as a model for modifying naturally occurring proteins to enhance desired effects while limiting unwanted ones. Synthetic variants of follistatin have shown promise in improving its therapeutic potential, laying the foundation for more efficient and predictable protein modifications for treating human diseases.

It’s crucial to note that Follistatin 315 is associated with moderate side effects, low oral bioavailability in mice, and excellent subcutaneous bioavailability. The dosage in mice doesn’t scale to humans. 


Article Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.


The product information featured on this website pertains exclusively to in-vitro studies. In-vitro studies, also known as ‘in glass’ studies, are conducted outside of living organisms. It’s important to emphasize that these products do not constitute medicines or drugs and have not received FDA approval for the prevention, treatment, or cure of any medical conditions, ailments, or diseases. It is crucial to note that the introduction of these products into the bodies of humans or animals is strictly prohibited by law.