Peptides > DSIP


The Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) is a neuropeptide recognized for its impact on numerous endocrine and physiological functions in the central nervous system. DSIP stands out for its ability to reduce oxidative stress, control heart muscle contractions, and is currently being studied as a potential treatment for major depressive disorder.

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1. Introduction to DSIP


2. Molecular Structure of DSIP


3. Research on DSIP


Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) is a naturally occurring short peptide. Its name is derived from its ability to induce sleep in rabbits and its initial discovery in 1977 in rat brains during slow-wave sleep. While its physiological and endocrine functions are still being unraveled, DSIP has garnered increasing attention from researchers. Presently, it’s understood that DSIP can modulate corticotropin levels, inhibit somatostatin secretion, mitigate stress, normalize blood pressure, influence sleep patterns, and alter pain perception. Moreover, it holds potential for future applications in cancer therapy, depression treatment, and safeguarding against free radical damage.

Molecular Structure

Sequence: Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu
Molecular Formula: C35H48N10O15
Molecular Weight: 848.824 g/mol
PubChem CID: 68816
CAS Number: 62568-57-4
Synonyms: Emideltide, DSIP nonapeptide, Deltaran

Source: PubMed


The Relationship of DSIP to Sleep
Although DSIP, or Delta sleep-inducing peptide, carries a name suggesting a direct link to sleep, its relationship with sleep patterns has proven challenging to pinpoint definitively. Initially, DSIP garnered attention due to its ability to induce sleep in rabbits and its discovery in the brains of rats during slow-wave sleep in 1977. However, subsequent research has yielded mixed results regarding its impact on sleep.

In various studies, DSIP has demonstrated inconsistent effects on sleep. While some research indicates that DSIP promotes slow-wave sleep and suppresses paradoxical sleep, other studies have shown no influence on sleep whatsoever. One intriguing study even reported that DSIP initially causes arousal during the first hour of sleep, followed by sedation in the second hour. Overall, this suggests that DSIP may play a role in normalizing sleep patterns and addressing sleep cycle dysfunctions, a notion supported by other research findings.

Notably, significant research into DSIP’s impact on chronic insomnia has been undertaken. In such cases, DSIP appears to enhance sleep quality, potentially bringing it on par with that of individuals without insomnia. These findings align with research indicating that DSIP can improve sleep structure and reduce sleep latency in individuals with chronic insomnia. While the improvements are statistically significant, they remain relatively modest.

Despite the contradictory findings in scientific studies, it’s challenging to deny some connection between DSIP and sleep initiation. Human subject research has revealed subjective measures indicating that DSIP promotes sleep. It induces feelings of sleepiness, increases total sleep time by 59% when compared to a placebo, and shortens the time it takes to fall asleep. However, these subjective findings appear to conflict with EEG analyses, which often show no apparent sedative effects. It’s worth noting that current EEG measures of sedation are typically based on pharmacological sedation rather than natural sedation, which may explain this discrepancy. DSIP, at the very least, offers a valuable tool for reevaluating how sleep is measured in laboratory settings, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of this complex physiological function.

Research in Addressing Chronic Pain
Managing chronic pain can be challenging, given the limitations and side effects associated with current medications like NSAIDs and opioids when used long-term. DSIP has shown promise in a small pre-clinical trial involving humans by significantly reducing pain perception and improving mood. This study also suggested that DSIP may be beneficial for individuals who have developed a physiological dependence on other pain medications, as it can help alleviate withdrawal symptoms and the pain rebound often experienced upon discontinuation of long-term analgesic therapy.

Research conducted on rats has indicated that DSIP exerts its analgesic effects by interacting with central opioid receptors. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are direct or indirect. Notably, DSIP does not seem to lead to the kind of dependency commonly associated with opioid medications, despite both substances acting on the same central nervous system receptors.

Role in Metabolism
Studies in rats have shown that DSIP can mitigate stress-induced metabolic disturbances that often lead to a shift from oxygen-dependent to oxygen-independent respiration in mitochondria. The latter process is less efficient and generates toxic metabolic byproducts. DSIP’s ability to maintain oxidative phosphorylation, even in conditions of hypoxia, positions it as a potential treatment for conditions like stroke and heart attacks. By preserving normal mitochondrial function, DSIP could mitigate metabolic damage caused by oxygen deprivation and protect tissue until proper blood flow is restored.

DSIP’s antioxidant properties make it a powerful tool for reducing the production of free radicals, which could have implications for anti-aging therapies. However, further research is needed to understand the full extent of its effects.

Depression and Chemical Imbalances
DSIP’s ability to influence mitochondrial activity in hypoxic conditions has led researchers to investigate its potential impact on depression. DSIP appears to modulate changes in monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and serotonin levels, which are relevant to depression. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from individuals with major depression has shown decreased DSIP levels compared to control subjects. Given the strong connection between sleep and depression, it’s not surprising that a peptide involved in sleep regulation could play a role in depression development. Although there have been no attempts to treat depression by normalizing DSIP levels, the peptide’s connection to changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be relevant to suicidal behavior.

Research in Withdrawal and Addiction
Studies exploring DSIP’s potential to alleviate withdrawal symptoms during opiate and alcohol detoxification have reported promising results. In one study involving 107 patients experiencing alcohol or opiate withdrawal symptoms, 97% and 87% of participants, respectively, experienced complete resolution of withdrawal symptoms or significant improvement. Interestingly, opiate withdrawal proved more resistant to treatment, necessitating more DSIP injections over a longer duration. Withdrawal, particularly from alcohol, can be life-threatening, making any progress in its treatment significant.

Role in Cancer Prevention
While much cancer research focuses on treating diagnosed cases, some researchers are increasingly interested in cancer prevention. DSIP has shown promising cancer prevention effects in mice. Female mice receiving DSIP on five consecutive days each month, starting at three months of age and continuing until their death, experienced a remarkable 2.6-fold reduction in tumor development. This reduction was accompanied by a 22.6% decrease in the frequency of chromosomal defects in bone marrow. These findings suggest that DSIP may be more effective at preventing cancer than any tested vaccine.

DSIP as a Cancer Adjuvant
Chemotherapy can lead to changes in central nervous system functioning, including impaired motor control, behavioral alterations such as depression, and language difficulties. Children undergoing chemotherapy are particularly vulnerable to these alterations. Recent research indicates that DSIP can correct or prevent these central nervous system changes following cancer treatment. Part of this effect may be attributed to DSIP’s ability to increase blood supply to the brain, which is beneficial for healing and reducing metabolic damage. In animal models of cerebral ischemia, DSIP and its alternative preparation, Deltaran, significantly increased survival rates, with Deltaran-treated animals achieving a 100% survival rate compared to 62% in controls.

Widespread Physiological and Muscle-Building Effects
While DSIP was initially identified in rabbit brains during slow-wave sleep and associated with sleep regulation in the central nervous system, its synthesis and functions remain enigmatic. DSIP levels are as high in peripheral tissues as they are in the central nervous system, suggesting that its primary function may extend beyond sleep regulation.

There is speculation that DSIP may serve as a hypothalamic hormone with a broader role in regulating human physiology, akin to how growth hormone influences more than just bone and muscle growth. Some studies have even shown that DSIP inhibits somatostatin, a protein that suppresses muscle growth when produced in muscle cells. This inhibition contributes to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in skeletal muscle, indicating that DSIP may have a more universal role in regulating human physiology than previously thought.

Moreover, DSIP has been linked to the regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, thermogenesis, and the lymphokine system. Some of these effects manifest before clinical or laboratory signs of sleep, suggesting that DSIP might play a role in preparing the body for sleep initiation by altering physiology.

It’s essential to note that DSIP has minimal side effects, offers good subcutaneous bioavailability in mice, and is primarily intended for educational and scientific research rather than human consumption. Purchasing DSIP should only be considered by licensed researchers.

Article Author

The above literature was researched, edited and organized by Dr. Logan, M.D. Dr. Logan holds a doctorate degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a B.S. in molecular biology.


The product information featured on this website pertains exclusively to in-vitro studies. In-vitro studies, also known as ‘in glass’ studies, are conducted outside of living organisms. It’s important to emphasize that these products do not constitute medicines or drugs and have not received FDA approval for the prevention, treatment, or cure of any medical conditions, ailments, or diseases. It is crucial to note that the introduction of these products into the bodies of humans or animals is strictly prohibited by law.